Once the canal space has been enlarged and cleaned fully it can be filled with a suitable root canal filling material. The choice of when to do this will vary as the tooth may need more than one treatment to complete the procedure. If the canal cannot be fully cleaned and dried following one procedure a dressing may be placed inside the canals to permit the treatment to be completed at a future visit. The commonest filling material is called gutta percha and a number of gutta percha cones can be inserted into the root canals using varying techniques to completely fill the prepared spaces. It is currently thought that a well filled or obturated canal can prevent bacteria from infecting the tooth again.

Following the filling of the root canals the tooth can be restored with a suitable restoration to seal the root canals and further protect them from entry of bacteria from the mouth.

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